Question 1a) Why is this the case?b) Where does the other two-third of Aquaculture production come from?Question 2 Mariculture, accounts for roughly one-third of all global Aquaculture production.In the area of marine finfish, contrast between enhancement and ranching.Question 3Carefully study the two scenarios (photos a and b) below. As an expert, an investor in Aquaponics System has approached you for advice. Which scenario would you recommend? Justify your answer
We discussed the concept of enzymes that generate and remove post-translational modifications (kinases or “writers” and phosphatases or “erasers”). By
We discussed the concept of enzymes that generate and remove post-translational modifications (kinases or “writers” and phosphatases or “erasers”). By controlling the extent of a modification, these enzymes coordinately control the flow of signaling information. For Ca2 signaling—where the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2 is used to transmit information—which molecules play the roles of writers and erasers? What is the source of the energy driving Ca2 signaling?
Concept of enzymes that generate and remove post-translational modifications (kinases or “writers” and phosphatases or “erasers”). By controlling the extent
Concept of enzymes that generate and remove post-translational modifications (kinases or “writers” and phosphatases or “erasers”). By controlling the extent of a modification, these enzymes coordinately control the flow of signaling information. For Ca2 signaling—where the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2 is used to transmit information—which molecules play the roles of writers and erasers? What is the source of the energy driving Ca2 signaling?
please answer and explain the following questions as well : 1.Describe the difference between organic and inorganic chemicals.2.Relate oxygen content
please answer and explain the following questions as well : 1.Describe the difference between organic and inorganic chemicals.2.Relate oxygen content of a chemical to whether it is hydrophilic or hydrophobic.3.Explain the relationship between starch, fiber, and complex carbohydrates and how they relate to glucose, sugar,and simple sugars.4.Describe how to use iodine, Benedict, and Biuret tests to identify starch, simple sugars, and protein respectively.5.Describe the color of a positive reaction and a negative reaction for iodine, Benedict ,and Biuret tests.6.Describe how an emulsifier changes the mixing of oil and water.7.Identify the Independent, Dependent, and Control Variables in your experim
Glyphosate was first used commercially in 1974. It is the primary ingredient in the commercial product RoundUp which has been
Biology Assignment Writing ServiceGlyphosate was first used commercially in 1974. It is the primary ingredient in the commercial product RoundUp which has been widely used since 1996. Glyphosate kills plants by blocking a plant enzyme that helps plants grow. Humans do not have this enzyme so it was initially assumed that this chemical could not harm people. It is now known that this chemical pathway does impact some bacteria and fungi. Glyphosate has been used so much that it is now commonly found in our soil, foods, and water.Cuhra (2015) sampled 10 soybean plants from a farm in Iowa, USA and 11 soybean plants from a farm in Salta, Argentina. The soybean crops were Round-Up Ready. The results of the analysis can be seen in the graph below.1) Based on the graph above, is glyphosate found in the crops tested? Yes/no2) How would the herbicide be found on the crops after harvest?
Please help me to solve all of the questions below. I’m gonna have a test but I couldn’t understand from
Please help me to solve all of the questions below. I’m gonna have a test but I couldn’t understand from my teacher! That’s all the data and information I got from my teacher! Please help me, many thanks and have a great day! A. Hagfish self-defense. About 300 million years ago (mya), the first vertebrate animals evolved including jawless tubular fish called hagfish, which are classified in the order Myxini. They feed either on worms, or on large fish, or on dead carcasses of marine life. When they feed on bodies, they bury their head into the carcass or body and tie themselves into a knot to gain leverage so they can rip some of the flesh off. Hagfish are vulnerable to predators when they are working on getting a mouthful of food, and they might be snatched by a shark or other large fish. However, it turns out that hagfish are not completely defenseless; each has over 100 mucus producing glands in its skin, and each gland has two kinds of cells. One type of cell produces mucus, while the other cell type produces very strong threads that are six inches long. One cup of mucus will have 6,000 threads. So, when a hagfish is prodded or grabbed by a predator, it contracts muscles around the slime glands and release an expanding cloud of mucus into the water. The threads and mucus are quickly gulped in to the mouths of predatory fish where the threads tangle the gills A fish that has been exposed to this hagfish defense will almost instantly begin gasping and shaking its head. Meanwhile the hagfish wriggles away to freedom behind a cloud of mucus. Nothing is perfect – the hagfish defense is useless against predators without gills (dolphins and seals), which regularly munch on hagfish. Questions:1) Is the hagfish defense an adaptation that enhances reproduction or survival?2) List the physical and behavioral adaptations that are components of the hagfish defense.3) Suppose that you could travel back almost 300 mya and study populations of hagfish. Further suppose that individuals in one population had new alleles for making mucus glands, and another population of hagfish did not have those mutant alleles. Which population obviously was more reproductively successful? B. Toadfish mating calls. By 1985 the San Francisco Bay had finally reached a point where much of the pollution from earlier years had been cleaned up. Natural populations were on the rise. But something strange was happening in Sausalito, CA. During summer evenings 9:00 pm à 5:00 am, there was a dull, maddening humming, and no one knew where it was coming from. Eventually, a biologist from the California Academy of Science identified the source as the mating song of the male toadfish (Porichthys notatus). This story was so big that it was reported on the national TV news on CBS with Dan Rather. A male fish making song for mates is quite a rare behavior, as most fish attract mates with swim patterns, bright colors, or even slapping their tail on the water to make noise. How does a toadfish male do it? Most fish have something called a swim bladder, which is basically a sac filled with oxygen to help a fish not sink down to the bottom (maintain neutral buoyancy), thus saving energy needed to of swim upwards. The toadfish swim bladder has muscles attached to it, and males can vibrate the organ as much as 150 times per second – producing a humming which attracts females that are ready to mate. The bigger the male, the better his humming, so females may be choosing alpha males who have survived longer and grown well in the environment. Additionally, the large male is more capable of defending his nest full of developing fish eggs/his offspring. There is another group of toadfish males known as sneaky f#*kers (we can call them sneakers from now on). These are smaller males (1/8th the size of alphas) not yet capable of making the kind of humming that will attract mates. However, there is something extraordinary about these males. Sneakers have gonads seven times the size of alpha males. Can you guess why? When a female is wooed after maybe two hours of alpha male singing, she drops off a batch of eggs into his nest, and then the male sprays sperm onto them for fertilization. If a sneaker male who is capable of making a lot of sperm is nearby, he can dash in first and fertilize the eggs himself. Thus, the genes (alleles) to make clever sneaker fish persist through evolutionary time. Questions:1) What physical adaptations specific to toadfish can you list?2) What two behavioral adaptations do male toadfish have?3) How can alpha males devote their energy for reproduction? How do sneakers expend energy on reproduction?4) Is one male behavior better? When? Why? C. Surinam Toad maternal care. Most amphibians exhibit a type III survivorship curve, which means that adults can often live long lives, but that eggs or young are at high risk of being eaten by someone. There are many remarkable examples of parental care in frogs that help to reduce this early loss of life. One solution to reducing the vulnerability of young is exhibited in the female Surinam Toad, who carries eggs on her back until they mature to tiny toads. The mating session of this toad is in a way typical for frogs and toads; the male uses his fore legs to grasp the female from behind and is actually on her back (posture is called amplexus). He then fertilizes eggs as she deposits them. However, in this species the mating session includes additional events. The male and female remain in their lover’s embrace for hours without any sperm or egg being released; during that time the back of the female kind of swells in preparation for accepting eggs. When the egg laying finally begins, the female begins performing numerous somersaults so that the eggs end up on her back. Actually, the eggs are first trapped in skin folds on the belly of the male. The male then helps implant the egg on the females back with a bump of his belly. In one 24-hour mating session, biologists observed that 55 of 66 eggs were successfully deposited on the female’s back. After mating is complete, the swollen skin on the back of the female grows and surrounds the eggs in a kind of honeycomb pattern. The eggs develop there for several months until they become young toads Then, the offspring just start popping out and swim off to live their lives in a big bad world. Mom is left with pock marked skin on her back, which she eventually sheds. Questions:1) Did this adaptation enhance the adult female’s survival or her reproductive efforts?2) List all the ways that the female toad expended energy to successfully reproduce.3) What were the male’s structural or behavioral adaptations that helped complete the mating session? 4) What was the environmental feature, or selection pressure, that made this bizarre form of maternal care adaptive?
Below is a phylogeny illustrating the evolutionary history of Volvox over the past 300 million years. Use the phylogeny to
Below is a phylogeny illustrating the evolutionary history of Volvox over the past 300 million years. Use the phylogeny to answer the following questions: 4. When did the common ancestor of Goniaceae and Volvocaceae live? 5. Which term from systematics best describes Pleodorina californica and Pleodorina japonica?6. According to the phylogeny, is Volvox carteri more closely related to Volvox tertius or Volvox aureus? Explain your reasoning. 7. The evolution of specialized germ cells (cells that are dedicated to reproduction) is a major evolutionary step towards true multicellularity. When and in which lineages has this innovation occurred in Volvocaceae? Has this trait ever been lost from a lineage in Volvoaceae?
Conrad et al. (2017) analyzed urine samples that had been frozen in the German Environmental Specimen Bank. They used samples
Conrad et al. (2017) analyzed urine samples that had been frozen in the German Environmental Specimen Bank. They used samples that had been collected in 2001-2015. All samples had been provided by 20-29 year olds living in Greifswald (a city in north-eastern Germany). These individuals were random people from the general population and were not selected because they used glyphosate herbicides or had expected higher exposure. Of the 399 samples, 31% contained glyphosate. AMPA is a chemical produced with the human body breaks down glyphosate. The number of samples containing glyphosate and AMPA found in the urine samples varied over time, as seen in the graph below. A similar type of study was conducted with people from California. Samples from 100 people from San Diego that were already participating in a long-term study of their health were (Mills et al., 2017) analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA. Their results can be seen in the table below.1) Based on the graph and table above, is glyphosate present in the human bodies of the general population? Yes/No/Cannot be determined (circle one)The US EPA reviewed the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate in 2016 and concluded that it is “not likely to be carcinogenic to humans” based on typical, non-occupational exposures. But, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer has now called glyphosate a “probable human carcinogen”.In early 2019, a federal jury ordered Monsanto (maker of RoundUp) to pay $80 million to a California man with cancer who had used RoundUp extensively over 30 years on his 56 acre farm. The jury decided that RoundUp had played a substantial role in his disease. Several other court cases across the country have also found in favor of the consumer.Several countries and some U.S. counties have now banned the use of glyphosate.2) In addition to potential human health impacts, what other concerns might consumers have about the GE corn? List at least two.
-Describe what happens during photolysis. Include the conditions necessary for photolysis to occur, the products of the process and
-Describe what happens during photolysis. Include the conditions necessary for photolysis to occur, the products of the process and what happens to each product in the LD reactions -Draw a diagram of the light dependent reactions. Describe how photosystem II and I work together to produce NADPH. Is the formation of NADPH oxidation or reduction? Explain.
Many people have questioned the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) for human health and our environment. In the US,
Many people have questioned the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) for human health and our environment. In the US, GMO’s are not regulated by a government agency. There have been many researchers investigating the safety of GMO’s on human health over the last few decades. The results of studies of health impacts from ingesting GMO’s have been contradictory. There are many variations in the experimental design of these studies which makes comparisons and cumulative evidence difficult. For example, no studies have been done on humans. Human research is difficult to do ethically and safely and our lifespan is long. GMO’s have only been in our food supply for a couple decades and so long-term data on humans eating GMO’s does not exist. Most studies use shorter-lived animals in place of humans (i.e, rat, mice, fruit fly).In one study, 180 rats were divided into three groups: 1) fed diet high in GMO rice, 2) fed diet high in non-GMO rice, 3) fed non-rice based diet (non-GMO). Over 18 months, the researchers measured the mortality rates, tumor growth and organ damage. They found no differences between the three groups. The study was published in a scientific journal but received little media attention.1) The independent (manipulated) variable in this study is thea. GMO foodb. ratsc. mortality, tumor, and organ damage ratesd. ricee. type of food2) A good hypothesis for this experiment might bea. Rats who eat GMO rice will have higher rates of mortality compared with the control rats because GMO’s cause organ damage . b. Will mortality, tumor and organ damage rates be higher in rats who eat GMO food?c. If rats each rice, mortality rates will be higher. d. Eating GMO’s is unhealthy. e. Rats will be sicker if they eat GMO food.Another group of researchers studied 100 rats for 2 years. They had 9 groups of rats fed varying amounts of GMO corn and the last group ate non-GMO corn. They concluded that rats that ate GMO corn had higher mortality rates and tumor rates than rats fed non-GMO corn. This study received a lot of attention in the media.However, other scientists questioned the results of the second study and, after investigation, found several concerns: This study used a strain of rat with a high rate of tumors. Statistical analyses were not included in the published article. Once scientists obtained the original data and performed relevant statistical tests, they found that the control group had a 3-times higher tumor rate than the group which ate the highest levels of GMO corn. The journal which published the second study retracted the paper. Even after the article was retracted some media continued to print articles with titles such as “Not Safe To Eat: Rats Fed Lifetime Of GMO Corn Grow Horrifying Tumors, Die Very Early” (GMO.com) and “Longest-Running GMO Safety Study Finds Tumors in Rats” (motherearthnews.com).3) The strain of rat in the second study would be an example of a(an)a. controlb. experimental variablec. dependent variabled. confounderOne specific type of GMO is very common in our food supply. Many crops are genetically modified to be resistant to a common herbicide known as glyphosate. Herbicides are chemicals which kill plants. Glyphosate is the most common herbicide used worldwide. It is used by farmers and homeowners alike to kill weeds. For farmers, these weeds growing in their field are competing with their crops which can decrease crop yield (how much of the crop grows). If the farmer grows a crop, like corn, that has been genetically modified for glyphosate resistance, the farmer can spray his whole corn field with glyphosate and his corn will survive but all the weeds in the field will die. These crops are known as “RoundUp Ready” because the commercially available herbicide RoundUp contains glyphosate. The most common crops that are RoundUp Ready are: corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, sugarbeets, and alfalfa. Round-Up Ready seeds are typically more expensive than non-GMO seeds that a farmer would buy because the company spent a lot of money in research and development to produce the GMO.4) If a study had a group of mice fed GMO corn and a group of mice eating nonGMO corn but the GMO corn had herbicides on it and the nonGMO corn did not, the presence of herbicides on the GMO corn would be a A) controlB) constantC) confounderIn a review of the existing research on the safety of eating crops that are glyphosate resistant, results are contradictory. In 15 studies, seven found no significant effects. Of these seven, six were studies performed within the industry and one was from an independent lab. The other eight studies found significant health effects. However, the studies varied in the animal model and if the GMO crop was grown with pesticides/herbicides and whether residual herbicides were present in the GMO foods. Two of the eight studies, which found health impacts, linked the results to the herbicide present in the food as opposed to the GMO itself (Cuhra, 2015).We cannot prove something is safe. There are unlimited potential dangers with anything, including GMO’s. We can however accumulate a large body of evidence on a specific subject which can create confidence in the conclusions on the topic. This body of evidence on GMO’s is not very large at this time.5) Which of the following statements is FALSE?A) When comparing the results of research studies examining the safety of GMOs, it is important to also compare the methods used in each study.B) If the results of a single study show that there is a link between GMO containing food and an increased risk of a particular disease, this does not necessarily mean that all GMO-containing food is dangerous.C) It is possible for scientists to prove conclusively that the use of GMOs in food is completely safe; however, more carefully controlled experiments are needed.D) Research studies investigating the same question using different experimental designs can produce conflicting results.6) Genetic engineering through inserting new DNA into an organism means that the organism will now produce a new…A) geneB) alleleC) proteinD) sugarE) amino acidF) nucleotide7) How could a scientist insert this gene into the corn plant? Choose all that apply.A) gene gunB) viral infectionC) bacterial infectionD) electrical shock E) CRISPRF) All answers could work8) Why would the farmer want to use this RoundUp-Ready corn? A) It is cheaper to grow than normal corn/soy. B) His corn will have to compete more with weeds. C) He would have to spray less herbicide. D) None of the above are accurate
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more