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Chicago Style Papers

It is essential for students and writers to understand the Chicago manual to provide support to arguments in their works. The Chicago referencing system provides basic tactics to professionally make references to research or books or any other source of information used.

The first purpose that a referencing guide serves is to help the author avoid plagiarism. This phenomenon is a huge offense that can discredit the work of a writer and cause immense harm to the reputation of the individual. Using a manual for writing will help avoid such problems. Secondly, the referencing system is essential to demonstrate the scope and depth of the research undertaken. Here, using relevant and peer reviewed sources is important. Furthermore, using many references refers to the depth of the research undertaken. Lastly, a referencing system is able to provide the exact location of information for a reader in case they need to consult the source further.

The Chicago style has two systems of documentation to choose from while making dissertations. One of them is the author-date system. Here, sources are cited within the text and enclosed in parentheses. Only the author’s last name and the date of publication are placed within parentheses. At the end of the paper, the references are provided in full. The author-date system is commonly used in the physical, social and natural sciences.

This section will provide some of the examples used to reference using the author-date system. For a book from one author, the in-text citation appears as

(Greene, 2000). 


Greene, Robert. 2000. The 48 laws of power. United States of America. Penguin books.

For a book from two authors, in-text citation follows,

(Amory and Hall, 2007)


Amory, Hugh, and David. D. Hall, (2007). The colonial book in the Atlantic world. Chapel Hill, N.C: University of North Carolina Press in association with the American Antiquarian Society.

For a book with more than one author, the in-text citation appears as follows,

(Casper et al. 2002)


Casper, Scott E., Joanne D. Chaison, Staurt Micheals and Jeffrey D. Groves. 2002. Perspectives on American book history: artifacts and commentary. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press in association with American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. and the Center for the Book, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

For a journal article, the in text citation follows,

(Allison, 2002, 199)


Alison, Paul. (2002), Book Reviews. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 55: 193–196. doi:10.1348/000711002159653.  

The Chicago style also uses endnotes or footnotes system to make references. These two methods are able to provide the exact source of information. Moreover, they simply provide a method that does not interrupt the flow of argument in the line that they are used. Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper while footnotes are found at the end of each page of work written. While using footnotes, the reference number is superscripted while in endnotes they are normal. Further, names of authors of sources in the appear in the conventional method. This fact means that the first name comes first. This method is more popular among studies involving literature, the arts and history. However, the choice between the two methods can purely be based on the scholar’s preference.

There is a second task involved with the Chicago referencing style and it involves creating a reference list at the end of the work. This list compiles all the sources that are used to create and inform the work provide. Sources are placed alphabetically under alphabetically at the end of the paper under the title ‘bibliography’ which is started in a fresh page.

There are some rules that guide the writing of the bibliography. the bibliography must be located at the end of the work of an author and must begin on a fresh page. entries must be listed alphabetically in the bibliography. furthermore, when using this style, the last name of the first author begins the entry but the rest of the writers’ names are inserted with the first name first. For each entry, the first line must begin at the left margin but the additional lines are indented.

This section will provide some examples to demonstrate how endnotes and footnotes appear in the text and their particular references within the bibliography.

An ideal footnote appears as follows;

1 Robert, Greene. The 48 laws of power. (United States of America. Penguin books, 2002), 45.

While in the bibliography the entry appears as follows;

Greene, Robert. 2000. The 48 laws of power. United States of America. Penguin books.

Subsequent citations from the author appear in the footnotes section of each page as the last name of the author and the page number of the source.

3 Greene, 51

Further, when there is a citation that refers to the same section of the source as the one preceding the current one use ‘ibid’ instead of repeating it.

4 Ibid

For books with two or more authors, the footnote appears as below;

8 Donald, Schaefer, and Thomas Weiss. 1994. American economic development in historical perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press. 24

While in the bibliography it appears as follows,

Schaefer, Donald, and Thomas Weiss. 1994. American economic development in historical perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.

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